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Friction at that speed would heat the plane to 0F. Before leaving this discussion of the airliner of tomor-l row, let us say a word about the "Buck Rogers" type of rocket plane which we usually visualize as the space shirof the future.
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The range of this type of missile is from -W to 60 miles. The V-2 rocket, which was fired against London at a distance of miles, is an example of this type of missile. The three basic types of missiles may be classified as follows: 1. Air launched to air taroets. Air launched to surface taroets. Surface launched to air targets.
Surface launched to surface taroets. The fuel consumption problem may be solved by atomic power. This guiding system can be broken down into the following elements: 1. Three different gyros corresponding to these three angular degrees of freedom. Steeriug COlztrols. Another unique method of steering control of subsonic missiles is the wire control system. During flight of the missile, the wire is paid out by the missile while moving away from the launching airplane.
Steering control of the missile could be maintained up to 15 to 18 miles by sending electrical signals along the wire.
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Flight COlltrols. The subject of remote controls is highly technical and, therefore, no attempt is made to fully discuss it. It is apparent from this discussion that present theories on the subject may be completely revised. Therefore, jet r propulsion is a field of development in which Coast Artillery Officers should have a keen interest.
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In this atmosphere, the first ORC guided missile battalion was born and is taking its first steps under the able guidance of the Antiaircraft Artillery and Guided Missile Center. Nor did it keep the Commanding General of the Antiaircraft Artillery and Guided Missile Center from making available to the pioneer battalion all of the facilities and.
Fort Bliss, Texas. Great care is being exer- I cised in the selection of qualified Reserve Officers to fill the As soon as the officers are selected and the necessary specialists are available in the Enlisted Reserve Corps, it is planned to man the battalion' with as near a complete component as is possible. The mission of the new guid. This it. The officers of the battalion are enthusiastic for their new work; they have the incentive of being pioneers in a new endeavor with the attention of the army and the entire nation focused on their activities; and there is the physical proximity to the center of the nation's guided missile development to add I impetus to their program.
But with all these birthrights, the First ORC guided missile Battalion has a tremendous responsibility. It is not just another reserve unit. It is a pioneer, a new kind of outfit in a new and untried field. If it succeeds, it will form the nucleus and pattern for guided missile units among the Civilian Components just as the Army Ground Forces 1st Guided Missile Battalion is blazing the way for future Regular Army guided missile units.
It will prove that even with new and relatively undeveloped weapons, the Reserve and National Guard officer can keep abreast of the latest.
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Any other units or groups of individuals interested in the organization of similar type units will receive the full cooperation of the Antiaircraft and Guided Missile Branch of the Artillery School at Fort Bliss by addressing communications to that installation. Thompson The constant urge of airmen to 8y faster and faster has receiveda tremendous impetus in the past few years because of the creation of new modes of aircraft propulsion.
Spurred on by the war, the development of the prop-jet, the turbojet, the pulse-jet and the rocket has now reached a stage which prompts many to believe that the present forms of aircraft propulsion are outmoded. Careful analysis will show that this is by no means the case. One of these new engines, the turbo-jet, is making a bid for a large portion of future aircraft installations.
It has now established itself as a fairly dependable aircraft power-, plant and its charaperistics appear ideal for many applications. In order to establish the position of the turbo-jet with respect to aircraft speed anq range, it will be desirable to. Airplanes equipped with this type of powerplant are capable of speeds of approximately miles per hour. This speed limitation will be increased somewhat when new developments now underway result in acceptable propeller efficiencies at speeds above miles per hour.
The turbosupercharged powerplant does not utilize the entire Row of exhaust gas from the reciprocating engine in the turbosupercharger but wastes a considerable portion of the gas through a valve or wastegate. Consideration is now being given to utilization of all the exhaust gas in the turbosupercharger and this will probably make it possible to eliminate the geared-driven supercharger within the engine and possibly result in reducing the specific fuel consumption, at least at the higher engine speeds.
The maxi-,a c, As altitude is increased Figure I-Maximum effective speed of aircraft powerplancs.! This enoine is a high-speed, turbine type, powerplanr driving a propeller through a reduction gear. Air is the working Ruid and either kerosene or gasoline of any octane rating is the fuel.
Combustion is a conrinuous Row process and is self-sustained after the powerplanr has been started.
Ram air enters the compressor, is compressed, and passes inro the combustion chambers where the gas temperature is increased by combustion of fuel. The hot gases from the combustion chambers expand through the turbine where power is developed to drive the compressor, the accessories and the propeller shaft. The energy remaining in the exhaust gases is utilized in a high velocity jet to produce additional propulsive thrust.
The compressor for this engine can be of either the axial or radial Row type. An airplane utilizing prop-jet engines can obtain speeds approaching miles per hour and again this may be increased when higher efficiency propellers at increased speeds are available. To advance in speed beyond miles per hour, aircraft must be powered by using some form of jet propulsion system.
Jet propulsion systems embrace two main types, i. There are,three main types of jets: mec1umical, allxiliary and thermal. A liiec11auical jet propulsion system may employ a reciprocating engine or a gas turbine for the prime mover. Forward thrust is obtained by means of an enclosed or dtlcted. A mechanical jet propulsion system may be designed to combine the air from the ducted fan with the higher velocity gas from the engine so as to augment or increase the velocity of the mixture.
Auxiliary jet propulsion has been referred to above in those powerplant combinations which utilize the exhaust from a reciprocating engine or a turbosupercharger. Utilization of a greater percentage of the available energy in these auxiliary jet propulsion devices reduces the amount of power required from the propeller driven by the engine, particularly at higher altitudes, and will, therefore, result in an increase in speed.
Thermal jet propulsion includes four main types. These are the Campini system, turbo-jet, aero pulse and atl1odyd. The first thermal jet powered aircraft to Ry was the Campini-Caproni. It made a successful ten-minute Right in Milan on August 27, The design of this engine was laid down by S. Campiui in This engine utilized a standard reciprocating aircraft engine driving a compressor, whose air was then mixed with the exhaust from the recip' rocating engine and fed to combustion chambers, where additional fuel was added. The resulting products of combustion were then directed through a nozzle which furnished the high velocity jet.
The Campini system was quite complicated in comparison with the turbo-jet, which was developed shortly thereafter. See Figure 2. Ham air enters the compressor. Lli compressed, and passes into the combustion chambers, where its temperature is increased by the combustion of 1 fuel. On expansion of the gas through the turbine, sufficient energy is extracted to drive the compressor.
The aero pulse, or pulse jet, which does not employ a mechanically driven compressor but. Since air is forced into the combustion space as a result of the fom'ard motion of the aero pulse, it is necessary to launch this device before it will operate under its ownl power.
Ignition is intermittent. The spark discharge explodes the fuel-air mixture, increasing the pressure in the combustion space, causing the inlet shutters to close anci forcing the gas rearward through the jet nozzle.