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Skip to content. Twitter Facebook. X was jailed for a maximum term of four years and six months. A sentencing hearing for X has been set down for September In , police began investigating a claim that a year-old man contracted HIV from X. HIV attacks the immune system and is transmitted by bodily fluids such as blood and semen. Zambia: Man pleads not guilty to accusations of alleged HIV exposure and non-disclosure Last updated November 7, UK: Woman with low viral load sentenced to 14 months in prison for biting police officer Last updated October 21, Intra-class correlation coefficients ICCs were computed between baseline and follow-up scores based on a one-way random effects model.
Scoring PozQoL was a two-step process. First, all negatively-worded items were recoded so that higher scores for all items indicated better QoL. Subsequently, items were averaged to create the total score and scores for each subscale. The response range for each scale was 1—5. Items with missing responses were not taken into account when calculating the scores.
Only responses of participants who missed none or one item were used to compute the scores. Missing data for each participant varied between 0 and 7. Thus, the scores represented the average for items in the subscale that the respondent answered. Correlation coefficients of. Concurrent validity was determined by assessing correlation coefficients between PozQoL and other measures of QoL. The total score for PozQoL displayed a significant moderate correlation with the physical component of SF and a strong correlation with the mental component of SF Similarly, PozQol displayed a strong correlation with FAHI, indicating a high level of agreement between the measured concepts.
Convergent validity was assessed with correlation coefficients between PozQoL and other measures of mental health and wellbeing. The total score for PozQoL displayed significant moderate to strong correlations with all measures. The development of a short easy to use instrument could transform the way HIV organisations, governments, and other stakeholders evaluate clinical and support programs, allowing these to be more firmly evidence-based and consistent across the sector.
PozQoL displayed excellent construct validity and very good reliability, including consistency and temporal stability.
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The factor structure of the PozQoL scale is consistent with the conceptualization of QoL proposed by the World Health Organization [ 24 ] including four key factors: 1 health concerns; 2 psychological; 3 social; and 4 functional domains. An assessment of concurrent and convergent validity indicated a significant overlap between PozQoL and two other established measures of QoL, and consistent correlations with other measures of mental health and wellbeing. Thus, PozQoL may be considered a shorter alternative to the use of multiple larger scales.
The active partnership with PLHIV peer-led organisations enabled the study to ensure the research rigour was complemented by practical and conceptual considerations and contributed a deeper understanding of the complexity of the experience of PLHIV. This includes the capacity to monitor total and individual domain scores, particularly when a program may be focused on one or two of the domains. Incorporating QoL into service evaluation which otherwise would not be able to include a large scale may support the targeting of programs and services to meet and sustain the 90, 90, 90 goals. An implementation trial of the PozQoL scale will be conducted across clinical, community and peer-led programs in While the sample was diverse, the majority were Anglo-Australian gay-identifying men.
Although this demographic group constitutes the vast majority of PLHIV in Australia [ 45 ] and so was to be expected, future research may be needed with larger samples of other genders, sexualities, and cultural backgrounds to confirm its applicability and reliability. Similarly, only Australian participants were involved in the study. Future research may be needed to test the PozQoL scale among PLHIV in other English-speaking countries, and to assess its capacity to be translated into other languages. The majority of the sample was collected online and through community organizations and networks.
It is feasible that our sample was not entirely representative of the PLHIV population in Australia, particularly individuals not connected with HIV services and community organisations. Further, due to the nature of our study, the final item PozQoL scale was not tested on its own, but as part of the wider set of 64 items. Future studies are thus needed to confirm the validity of the PozQoL as a standalone measurement tool. The study will be implementing a usability and sensitivity implementation trial in across a range of health and community services in Australia.
The PozQoL will also be trialled in cross-sectional studies in the USA, which due to the nature of the epidemiology, will enable us to test validity of the scale in more gender-, sexually-, ethnically-, and language-diverse samples than in Australia. For the purpose of the studies the PozQoL will be translated into Spanish. The PozQoL scale has been tested in a diverse sample of adult PLHIV living in Australia, demonstrating very good reliability and validity, as well as the strength of meaningful involvement of people with HIV in research studies.
It is recommended that the scale is implemented and field-tested across a range of community, support, and healthcare programs for PLHIV and in other countries. Antiretroviral drugs for treatment and prevention of HIV infection in adults: recommendations of the international antiviral society—USA panel.
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Australian gay and bisexual men’s online preferences about sex with HIV-positive partners
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The rand item health survey 1. Health Econ. New Australian population scoring coefficients for the old version of the SF and SF health status questionnaires.
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Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychol Med. The satisfaction with life scale. J Pers Assess. The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back.
Int J Behav Med. AIDS Care. Cohen S, Syme SL. Issues in the study and application of social support. The prevalence of men conveying their serosorting preferences regarding partners they meet online remains unclear.
Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preferences for meeting HIV-positive partners. Results : Men could indicate their preferences from a list of 22 types of partners; profiles 7. There were profiles 3. Men who specifically excluded HIV-positive men on their profiles were younger mean age